In recent years a number of Dynamic Velocity Prediction Programs (DVPPs), which allow studying the behaviour of a yacht while tacking, have been developed. The aerodynamic models used in DVPPs usually suffer from a lack of available data on the behaviour of the sail forces at very low apparent wind angles where the sails are flogging. In this paper measured aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for apparent wind angles between 0° and 30° are presented. Tests were carried out in the University of Auckland’s Twisted Flow Wind Tunnel in a quasi-steady manner for stepwise changes of the apparent wind angle. Test results for different tacking scenarios (genoa flogging or backed) are presented and discussed and it is found that a backed headsail does not necessarily produce more drag than a flogging headsail but increases the beneficial yawing moment significantly. The quasisteady approach used in the wind tunnel tests does not account for unsteady effects like the aerodynamic inertia in roll due to the “added mass” of the sails. In the second part of paper the added mass moment of inertia of a mainsail is estimated by “strip theory” and found to be significant. Using expressions from the literature the order of magnitude of three-dimensional effects neglected in strip theory is then assessed. To further quantify the added inertia experiments with a mainsail model were carried out. Results from those tests are presented at the end of the paper and indicate that the added inertia is about 76 % of what strip theory predicts.
Tacking in the Wind Tunnel
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Gerhardt, Frederik C., Le Pelley, David, Flay, Richard G. J., and Peter Richards. "Tacking in the Wind Tunnel" Paper presented at the SNAME 19th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA, March 2009. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/CSYS-2009-012
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