The distribution of low-salinity benefit for an ensemble of models is required to evaluate low-salinity enhanced oil recovery (OREC) projects. To enable this, low-salinity pseudorelative permeability curves are required to estimate the benefit of low-salinity waterflooding at the field level. We present how the low-salinity benefit can be propagated through an ensemble of full-field models in which each simulation case could have a set of distinctive high-salinity pseudos. A 0.5-ft vertical resolution sector and its 10-ft upscaled counterpart are used. Relative permeability curves and the low-salinity benefit from corefloods are used in the high-resolution sector to create profiles. Pseudohigh- and low-salinity curves are generated for the upscaled sector by history matching high-salinity and incremental low-salinity profiles.
Low-salinity benefit is typically measured from corefloods and the same benefit is often assumed at the field scale. Our results show that generating low-salinity curves for high-salinity pseudos using low-salinity benefit from corefloods slightly underestimates the true low-salinity benefit at field scale estimated from high-resolution models. This conclusion is consistent for two extreme relative permeability scenarios tested (i.e., a high-total-mobility unfavorable fractional flow and low-total-mobility favorable fractional flow). Including capillary pressure in high-resolution models was crucial. We would have come to another conclusion if we had not used capillary pressure in fine-grid simulation as approximately one-third of the benefit of low-salinity waterflooding was attributable to more favorable capillary pressure under low-salinity injection. We demonstrate how a set of high-salinity relative permeability data obtained from corefloods, which encompasses a range for fractional flow and total mobility, can be included in ensemble modeling appropriately and how low-salinity benefit could be estimated for such an ensemble. It is adequate to generate low-salinity curves for bounding high-salinity sets of curves. The bounding low-salinity curves can then be used to estimate low-salinity curve for any interpolated high-salinity curve. This workflow significantly simplifies the process of generating the distribution of low-salinity benefit corresponding to an ensemble of models which may be calibrated to limited history.