Summary

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is commonly used in acid fracturing. Given that the interaction between acid and rock affects multiphase flow behaviors, it is important to thoroughly understand the relevant phenomena. The Darcy-Brinkman-Stokes (DBS) method is most effective in describing the matrix-fracture system among the proposed models. This study aims to analyze the impact of acid-rock interaction on multiphase flow behavior by developing a pore-scale numerical model applying the DBS method. The new pore-scale model is developed based on OpenFOAM, an open-source platform for the prototyping of diverse flow mechanisms. The developed simulation model describes the fully coupled mass balance equation and the chemical reaction of carbonate acidizing in an advection‐diffusion regime. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to track the liquid- and gas-phase interface on fixed Eulerian grids. Here, the penalization method is applied to describe the wettability condition on immersed boundaries. The equations of saturation, concentration, and diffusion are solved successively, and the momentum equation is solved by pressure implicit with splitting of operators method. The simulation results of the developed numerical model have been validated with experimental results. Various injection velocities and the second Damkohler numbers have been examined to investigate their impacts on the CO2 bubble generation, evolving porosity, and rock surface area. We categorized the evolving carbon dioxide (CO2) distribution into three patterns in terms of the Damkohler number and the Péclet number. We also simulated a geometry model with multiple grains and a Darcy-scale model using the input parameters found from the pore-scale simulations. The newly developed pore-scale model provides the fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical phenomena of acid-rock interaction and their impact on acid transport. The modeling results describing mineral acidization will help us implement a practical fracturing project.

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