The petroleum industry has long relied on predrilling geomechanics models to generate static representations of the allowable mud weight limits. These models rely on simplifying assumptions such as linear elasticity, a uniform wellbore shape, and generalized failure criteria to predict failure and determine a safe mud weight. These assumptions lead to inaccurate results, and they fail to reflect the effect of different routing drilling events. Thus, this paper’s main objective is to improve the process for predicting the wellbore rock failure while drilling. This work overcomes the limitations by using a new and integrated modeling scheme.
Wellbore failure prediction is improved through the use of an integrated modeling scheme that involves an elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM) model, machine learning (ML) algorithms, and real-time drilling data, such as image logs from a logging while drilling (LWD) tool that accurately describes the current shape of the wellbore. Available offset well data are modeled in the FEM code and are then used to train the ML algorithms. The produced integrated model of FEM and ML is used to predict failure limits for new wells. This improved failure prediction can be updated with the occurrence of different drilling events such as induced fractures and wellbore enlargements. The values are captured from real-time data and reflected in the integrated model to produce a dynamic representation of the drilling window.
The integrated modeling scheme was first applied to laboratory experimental results to provide a proof of concept and validation. This application showed improvement in rock-failure prediction when compared with conventional failure criteria such as Mohr-Coulomb. Also, offset-well data from wireline logging and drilling records are used to train and build a field-based integrated model, which is then used to show that the model output for a separate test well reasonably matches the drilling events from the test well. Application of this integrated model highlights how the allowable mud-weight limits can vary because drilling progresses in a manner that cannot be captured by the conventional predrilling models.
As illustrated by a field case, the improvement in failure prediction through this modeling scheme can help avoid nonproductive time events such as wellbore enlargements, hole cleaning issues, pack-offs, stuck-pipe, and lost circulation. This efficiency is to be achieved by a real-time implementation of the model where it responds to drilling events as they occur. Also, this model enables engineers to take advantage of available data that are not routinely used by drilling.