Gas-hydrate cuttings are conveyed upward by the drilling fluid through the outer drillpipe/wellbore annulus during the gas-hydrate-well-drilling process. The temperature profile along the wellbore during the drilling process has not been thoroughly investigated because the gas-hydrate cuttings could affect the temperature of the drilling fluid along the wellbore. As the mixture of drilling fluid and gas hydrates flows from the bottom to the surface, the methane and other hydrocarbons present in the gas hydrates would change from liquid to gas phase and further cause well-control issues. Furthermore, the bottomhole pressure would decrease and could not provide sufficient balance to the formation pressure, which could significantly increase the risk of well blowout.
A numerical solution is presented in this paper to predict the temperature profile of the gas-hydrate well during the drilling process. The main considerations were the following:
Hydrate cuttings entrained in the bottom of the hole would affect the temperature of the fluid in the annulus space.
The entrained hydrate cuttings could affect the fluid thermal properties in the drillstring and in the annulus.
Because of the Joule-Thomson cooling effect at the outlet of the nozzles, the fluid temperature at the bottom of the hole was lower than that above the drill-bit nozzles.
Hence, the gas-hydrate-dissociation characteristics were considered and integrated in the proposed numerical model.
The numerical model was validated by comparing the obtained data with the Shan et al. (2016) analytical model. In addition, the obtained data were also compared with the measured temperature data of a conventional well drilled in China and a gas-hydrate-well drilling record in India. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the effects of the pumping rate, Joule-Thomson effect, and injection drilling-mud temperature on the annulus temperature-profile distribution. It was found that the injection drilling-mud temperature and pumping rate could affect the temperature profile in the annulus, whereas the Joule-Thomson effect could decrease the annulus temperature of the drilling mud near the bottom.