Data-acquisition programs, such as surveillance and pilot, play an important role in reservoir management, and are crucial for minimizing subsurface risks and improving decision quality. Optimal design of the data-acquisition plan requires predicting the performance (e.g., in terms of the expected amount of uncertainty reduction in an objective function) of a given design before it is implemented. Because the data from the acquisition program are uncertain at the time of the analysis, multiple history-matching runs are required for different plausible realizations of the observed data to evaluate the expected effectiveness of the program in reducing uncertainty. As such, the computational cost may be prohibitive because the number of reservoir simulations needed for the multiple history-matching runs would be substantial. This paper proposes a framework on the basis of proxies and rejection sampling (filtering) to perform the multiple history-matching runs with a manageable number of reservoir simulations. The work flow proposed does not depend on the linear Gaussian assumption that is a common, yet questionable, assumption in existing methods. The work flow also enables both qualitative and quantitative analysis of a surveillance plan. Qualitatively, heavy-hitter alignment analysis for the objective function and the observed data provides actionable measures for screening different surveillance designs. Quantitatively, the evaluation of expected uncertainty reduction from different surveillance plans allows for optimal design and selection of surveillance plans.

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