Fracture acidizing is a well-stimulation technique used to improve the productivity of low-permeability reservoirs and to bypass deep formation damage. The reaction of injected acid with the rock matrix forms etched channels through which oil and gas can then flow upon production. The properties of these etched channels depend on the acid-injection rate, temperature, reaction chemistry, mass-transport properties, and formation mineralogy. As the acid enters the formation, it increases in temperature by heat exchange with the formation and the heat generated by acid reaction with the rock. Thus, the reaction rate, viscosity, and mass transfer of acid inside the fracture also increase.
In this study, a new thermal-fracture-acidizing model is presented that uses the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate reactive transport. This method incorporates both accurate hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics at the solid/liquid interface. The temperature update is performed by use of a finite-difference technique. Furthermore, heterogeneity in rock properties (e.g., porosity, permeability, and reaction rate) is included. The result is a model that can accurately simulate realistic fracture geometries and rock properties at the pore scale and that can predict the geometry of the fracture after acidizing. Three thermal-fracture-acidizing simulations are presented here, involving injection of 15 and 28 wt% of hydrochloric acid into a calcite fracture. The results clearly show an increase in the overall fracture dissolution because of the addition of temperature effects (increasing the acid-reaction and mass-transfer rates). It has also been found that by introducing mineral heterogeneity, preferential dissolution leads to the creation of uneven etching across the fracture surfaces, indicating channel formation.