Research has shown that fractures can be modeled as a non-welded contact (linear slip) interface. Therefore, in the long wavelength limit, fractures embedded in a homogeneous medium can be equivalent to a transversely isotropic media (TI). We have extended linear slip theory (Schoenberg, 1980) and the generalized homogeneous finite difference approach (Korn and Stockl, 1982) to model horizontal fractures, vertical fractures and 3D wormholes formed during cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). This paper illustrates that seismic PP and PS wave propagation in a unique homogeneous medium is strongly affected by properties of the fractures. We also present a case study of fluid filled cracks in the single fracture. Thus, this research contributes to reservoir characterization because reservoir permeability directly governs hydrocarbon production.

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