We derive 2D refraction statics for seismic data recorded in a hard rock terrain, in which there are large and rapid variations in the depth of weathering. The statics corrections range from less than 10 ms to more than 70 ms, often over distances as short as 12 receiver intervals. This study is another demonstration of the importance in obtaining accurate initial refraction models of the weathering in hard rock terrains in which automatic residual statics may fail.
We show that the statics values computed with a simple model of the weathering using the generalized reciprocal method (GRM) and the refraction convolution section (RCS) are comparable in accuracy to those computed with a more complex model of the weathering, using least-mean-squares inversion with the conjugate gradient algorithm (Taner et al., 1998). The differences in statics values between the GRM model and that of Taner et al. (1998) systematically vary from an average of 2 ms to 4 ms over a distance of 8.8 km. The differences between these two refraction models and the final statics model, which includes the automatic residual values, are generally less than 5 ms. The residuals for the GRM model are frequently less than those for the model of Taner et al. (1998). The RCS statics are picked approximately 10 ms later, but their relative accuracy is comparable to that of the GRM statics.
The residual statics values show a general correlation with the refraction statics values, and they can be reduced in magnitude by using a lower average seismic velocity in the weathering. These results suggest that inaccurate average seismic velocities in the weathered layer may often be a source of short-wavelength statics, rather than any shortcomings with the inversion algorithms in determining averaged delay times from the traveltimes.