Unaliased 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) images of the shallow subsurface require dense data sampling. Trace spacing has to be close enough to sample entire diffractions. The steep tails of diffraction hyperbolae require trace spacing of a quarter wavelength or less. Using frequency-wavenumber analysis, the necessary spatial sampling intervals can be easily determined. With proper sampling and 3D migration, shallow subsurface features such as steep fractures can be imaged in great detail.


Earth scientists, archeologists and engineers want clear threedimensional views of the shallow subsurface to see internal geometry and understand how rock, soil, water and life interact.

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