This paper presents case studies focused on the interpretation and integration of seismic reservoir monitoring from several fields in conventional offshore and deepwater Niger Delta. The fields are characterized by different geological settings and development-maturity stages. We show different applications varying from qualitative to quantitative use of time-lapse (4D) seismic information.
In the first case study, which is in shallow water, the field has specific reservoir-development challenges, simple geology, and is in phased development. On this field, 4D seismic, which was acquired several years ago, is characterized by poor seismic repeatability. Nevertheless, we show that because of improvements from seismic reprocessing, 4D seismic makes qualitative contributions to the ongoing field development.
In the second case study, the field is characterized by complex geological settings. The 4D seismic is affected by overburden with strong lateral variations in velocity and steeply dipping structure (up to 40°). Prestack-depth-imaging (PSDM) 4D seismic is used in a more-qualitative manner to monitor gas injection, validate the geologic/reservoir models, optimize infill injector placement, and consequently, enhance field-development economics.
The third case study presents a deep offshore field characterized by a complex depositional system for some reservoirs. In this example, good 4D-seismic repeatability (sum of source- and receiver-placement differences between surveys, dS+dR) is achieved, leading to an increased quantitative use of 4D monitoring for the assessment of sand/sand communication, mapping of oil/water (OWC) front, pressure evolution, and dynamic calibration of petro-elastic model (PEM), and also as a seismic-based production-logging tool. In addition, 4D seismic is used to update seismic interpretation, provide a better understanding of internal architecture of the reservoirs units, and, thereby, yield a more-robust reservoir model. The 4D seismic in this field is a key tool for field-development optimization and reservoir management.
The last case study illustrates the need for seismic-feasibility studies to detect 4D responses related to production. In addition to assessing the impact of the field environment on the 4D- seismic signal, these studies also help in choosing the optimum seismic-survey type, design, and acquisition parameters. These studies would possibly lead to the adoption of new technologies such as broad-band streamer or nodes acquisition in the near future.