The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in saline aquifers is one of the most promising options for Europe to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from power plants to the atmosphere and to mitigate global climate change. The CO2SINK (CO2 Storage by Injection into a saline aquifer at Ketzin) project is a research and development (R&D) project, mainly supported by the European Commission, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, targeted at developing an in-situ laboratory for CO2 storage.

The preparatory phase of the project involved a baseline geological-site exploration and the drilling of one injection and two observation wells, as well as the acquisition of a geophysical baseline and geochemical monitoring, in Ketzin, located near Berlin. The target saline aquifer is the lithologically heterogeneous Triassic Stuttgart formation, situated at approximately 630- to 710-m (2,070- to 2,330-ft) depth. A comprehensive borehole-logging program was performed consisting of routine well logging complemented with an enhanced logging program for one well that recorded nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) and borehole-resistivity images, to characterize the storage formation better. A core analysis program carried out on reservoir rock and caprock included measurements of helium porosity, nitrogen permeability, and brine permeability at different pressure conditions.

The saline aquifer at Ketzin shows a variable porosity/permeability distribution, which is related to grain size, facies variation, and rock cementation with values in the range from 5 to > 35% and 0.02 to > 5,000 md for porosity and permeability, respectively. On the basis of core analysis and logging data, an elemental loganalysis model for the target formation was established for all three wells. In addition, permeability was estimated using the Coates equation and compared with core data and NMR log-derived permeability, which seems to provide meaningful permeability estimates for the Ketzin reservoir. On the basis of the good core control that guided the petrophysical well-log interpretation in the first two CO2SINK wells, a porosity and permeability prediction by analogy for the third well is appropriate and applicable. The availability of cores was crucial for a sophisticated formation evaluation at borehole scale that characterizes the real subsurface conditions.

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