Abstract

It is globally recognized that a transition in energy generation, transportation and utilization is required to meet climate change goals. There are a considerable number of rival technologies that are contesting for inclusion in this energy transition, but this paper focusses on the opportunities that hydrogen presents. Hydrogen offers an opportunity that can benefit from the significant infrastructure that is already in place as part of the fossil fuel industry, but there are risks.

Hydrogen embrittlement poses a significant risk to high-pressure steel transmission pipelines, putting them in danger of cracking, blistering and weakness. Hydrogen embrittlement occurs when the hydrogen diffuses with the pipeline material resulting in the deterioration of the steel pipe, valves, and fittings. With existing pipeline infrastructure, the costs of incorporating specialty steels to counteract these risks may not be economically viable and as such diluting the hydrogen concentration within a natural gas compound is one of the few viable methods for managing the risks.

This paper provides two case studies to discuss the challenges and benefits of a real-time system for the simulation of hydrogen pipelines. Using a currently operational pure hydrogen pipeline the accuracies of different equations of state will be investigated. These equations will then be compared against different hydrogen blends and hydrogen synthetic fuels to determine their suitability. The benefits of the real-time system will then be examined including the benefits of gas quality mixing, the challenges of hydrogen to operational planning and how to use pipeline models to manage demands. A brief discussion on DOT requirements for the transportation of hydrogen will also be provided.

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