Most gas TSOs are required by their national regulator to charge consumers based on volume and energy content of gas supplied. If the transmission system is supplied by multiple gas sources, then identifying the correct energy content for billing purposes is challenging. Some means of identifying the correct energy content would allow for more accurate and fairer billing. This paper will examine how this problem has been addressed using a transient real-time model. In this case, a real-time model was developed to track gas composition from diverse sources throughout the network to the end users. The output from the real-time model was then used as the basis for billing calculations, thus demonstrating that real-time hydraulic modelling can be used to address a topical problem facing many TSOs.

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