The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct- and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

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