This paper presents a procedure to estimate relative permeability curves together with gridblock porosities and permeabilities by automatic history matching three-phase flow production data using the LBFGS algorithm for optimization and the adjoint method for generating sensitivity coefficients. Both power law and B-splines are considered for the representation of relative permeability curves. Power law is a simple representation; however, B-splines have the advantage of being able to accurately represent any set of relative permeability curves. In the B-spline representation, we provide a simple procedure based on a transformation of parameters (control points) defining the B-splines to ensure that monotonic curves are obtained. Without this transformation, the automatic history-matching process fails. If endpoint saturations are included as parameters, we show how to modify the adjoint procedure to account for the fact that initial conditions are sensitive to endpoint saturations. While the history-matching process is inherently non-unique, we show that reasonable estimates of relative permeability curves and porosity/ permeability fields can be obtained for a synthetic reservoir example. We also show the uncertainty quantification of the model parameters and reservoir performance prediction using the Randomized Maximum Likelihood (RML) method.
Relative permeabilities are important parameters in reservoir performance calculations. Usually the relative permeability curves are obtained from labs through core flood tests. They can also be incorporated into the history matching procedure as model parameters. ARCHER and WONG (1973), and YANG and WATSON (1991) were among the early researchers to consider the estimation of relative permeability curves by history matching laboratory core flood data. A detailed literature review is given in REYNOLDS et al. (2004). REYNOLDS et al. (2004) also discussed the estimation of three-phase relative permeabilities by history matching roduction data.
The current work is a natural extension of REYNOLDS et al. (2004). In this paper, we provide an alternative method for relative permeability estimation based on B-spline approximation. Compared to power law representation, Bsplines ave the advantage of being able to accurately represent any set of relative permeability curves. In the B-spline representation, we provide a simple procedure based on logtransformation of parameters (control points) defining the Bsplines to ensure the B-spline curves are monotonic or convex as used in CHEN et al. (2005). Since a reservoir simulator requires monotonic relative permeability curves, without this transformation, the automatic history-matching process may generate non-monotonic relative permeability curves and result in failed reservoir simulation run. A prior model for porosity and absolute permeability and relative permeability parameters is assumed to provide regularization, i.e., Bayesian estimation is applied to generate estimates. Model parameters, which are estimated by automatic history matching of production data, consist of gridblock porosties, gridblock absolute logpermeabilities and the parameters defining the relative permeability curves.
We do not assume the endpoint saturations (i.e. irreducible water saturation, critical gas saturation and residual oil saturation) to be known and consider them as independent model parameters in history matching procedure.