Optimum Oil Production is hampered by a number of problems, these present challenges to the field personnel maintaining the equipment, and provides little or no data for engineers to provide production solutions. Much of the field personnel 's time is spent behind the wheel rather than concentrating efforts on maintenance and optimization. Other challenges are High Sand, Gas Influx, Pump Off, Tubing Leaks, equipment wear and other problems that compromise production. SCADA systems are helpful, but are very costly and limited to the amount and type of data handled.
In the operation of Progressive Cavity Pumping Systems, Rod Torque is a simple measurement, which can be achieved inexpensively with all types of Prime Movers, where all pumping conditions are reflected in the torque in some manner. Data may be viewed at the Well Site and/or transferred to the office, or connected remotely. Sufficient data is the key to be able to observe trends, create graphs and reports, which are essential in making logical decisions before a problem occurs, aid in optimizing production, and lowering operating costs. From the data simple controls may be then implemented to counter and control the effects of sand, gas, pump off, excessive water or other events, which degrade production.
Additional sensors can be added to monitor flow line pressure, temperature, Flow, bottom hole pressure, and WaterCut. Control Algorithms can be applied, dynamically in a closed loop system, to optimize Oil Production by adjusting the speed of the Prime Mover for optimum Oil production, for example using a Water Cut Sensor. Data is necessary to make knowledgeable decisions and implement controls to optimize production and profits on each well.
A typical Progressive cavity (PC) pumping system consists of a prime mover whether electric or hydraulic, a bearing and gearbox, a rod string to the bottom of the well, and the PC pump rotor and stator. Each well is different, and each system is designed to meet the lift requirements, production rates, fluid compatibility, gas, sand and water cut, rod and tubing wear, based on the completion information on a well after drilling. Once installed down hole, there is little or no control of the down hole system and conditions of the reservoir.
Well operation today typically consists of a routine drive by the Well once a day by a trained operator, and reading a display or gauge representative of the load being drawn by the prime mover. If the Well is connected to a flow line, it can be put on test, typically once a month for a few days which would give flow rates, water cut, and sand production. Fluid level shots are taken periodically, depending on the Well, to determine the fluid level.
From this minimal data, all decisions are made in the operation and optimization of the well. The amount and type of data gathered is reasonable within these traditional methods, though a daily snap shot does not give the user a full picture of the other 95% of the day.