Introduction

FG Engineering Services BV is a private Dutch company specializing in the engineering and supply of combustion systems, including clean enclosed burners. These combustion systems are designed to meet the highest international standards. FG Engineering Services BV is a subsidiary of FG International Holding with its main office located in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. FG International has offices in Germany, Italy, Singapore, Thailand and Canada, providing maintenance-related services to the petrochemical industry as well as installation service to the telecommunications industry.

WHY IS THE COMBUSTION OF WASTE GAS AN ISSUE?

Various petrochemical processes, oil and gas production activities and gas purging operations create significant amounts of hazardous waste gases. These gases, mostly hydrocarbons, need to be handled in a safe and efficient manner to ensure that any hazardous situations are avoided. This implies that these gases have to be oxidized through combustion, preferably on location.

Conventionally, this oxidation process is handled through the use of a flare stack. The oxidation is fully atmospheric and the resulting combustion efficiency is often less than adequate. Consequently, emissions contain unburned hydrocarbons and carbon moNOxide (CO), due to incomplete combustion.

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is also formed through this type of oxidation. Since the flame temperature during conventional flaring operations is relatively high, due to hot spots common to this type of flame, NOx formation will occur more readily. Furthermore, the long flame length creates sufficient time to form NOx. NOx causes acid rain and aids in the production of ozone at ground levels, which leads to the formation of smog.

There is also a large amount of radiation emitted in terms of heat and light. Steam injection, used to reduce black smoke and thermal radiation from elevated flares in Europe, creates irritating high-frequency jet-like whines and low-frequency rumbles. Inefficient combustion of a sour gas supply (gas containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S)) will create unburned hydrocarbons and H2S. This can result in an environmentally hazardous situation.

In European urbanized areas, combustion processes have to be carried out at efficiencies of 99.9% or above.

CLEAN ENCLOSED BURNER CEB ® DESIGN CRITERIA

A few years ago, the Dutch NAM (a joint venture between Shell and Esso) approached FG to conduct a study to improve flaring.

The specific objective and design criteria for this study were:

  • No visible soot or flames

  • Objective zero emissions

  • Low noise

  • Minimal infra-red and heat radiation

  • No additional cooling or steam injection required

  • Suitable for Sour Gas Combustion

  • High flow rates by modular system

  • Easy to mobilise, install and operate

Considering the above criteria, FG Engineering Services BV has developed the Clean Enclosed Burner CEB ®, a sea container sized high capacity pre-mixed surface combustion system.

The CEB ®has been designed to combust essentially all hazardous combustible gases, while producing extremely low emission levels. This characteristic makes the CEB ® suitable for operating near urbanized and environmentally protected areas.

The premix burning process shows a significant reduction of NOx compared to conventional flare and waste gas incineration processes. Measurements (by KW2 and Gastec, both certified bodies in Europe) indicate that NOx prod

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