Abstract

Field results from many heavy oil reservoirs in the Lindbergh and Frog lake fields in northeastern Alberta suggest that primary recovery is mainly governed by the processes of sand production and foamy oil behaviour Sand production leads to the creation of high porosity zones with increased permeability, while foamy oil generation provides the necessary support mechanism to sustain higher production rates.

PanCandian Petroleum Limited and Centre for Frontier Engineering Research (C-FER) conducted experimental And numerical studies to understand the various reservoir mechanisms contributing to the high primary production recovery observed in the Lindbergh and Frog Lake fields. Laboratory tests were conducted to study the foamy oil behaviour and evaluate its contribution to the enhanced primary production observed in the field. The numerical modelling included a series of idealized models developed and analyzed to determine the most probable shape of the sand-producing zones. The evaluation focussed on matching not only the observed oil production but also the observed sand volumes removed from the reservoir. The analysis from vertical well stimulation was also extended to horizontal wells.

The evaluation of heavy oil reservoir mechanisms for Lindbergh and Frog Lake fields is reported in two parts. Part I includes field testing and reservoir simulation Based on the production data. Part II includes analytical and numerical studies for the coupling effects of sandand oil production, and laboratory testing ofunconsolidated sand under foamy conditions.

Introduction

The observed primary oil production of many heavy oil reservoirs In the Lindbergh and Frog Lake fields in northeastern Alberta, Figure I. has been significantly higher than predicted by classical darcy flow models. PanCanadian Petroleum Limited and Centre for Frontier Engineering Research (C-FER) conducted experimental and numerical studies to understand the various reservoir mechanisms contributing to the observed highprimary production recovery.

This evaluation was conducted in two parts. This paper summarizes the work conducted for Part I of This evaluation and the results obtained in Part I includes geological descriptions of the Lindbergh and frog Lake heavy oil reservoirs. a summary of various field tests conducted in the area lo evaluate recovery mechanisms. The results of preliminary reservoir simulation based on production data and a review of the various mechanisms contributing lo the improved primary production. Part II of This evaluation is reported by the authors in Ref. (I). IT includes laboratory testing of unconsolidated sand under foamy oil conditions to answer questions related o wellbore stability and analytical and numerical studies for coupling the effects of sand and oil production.

Geological And Reservoir Description

The Mannville group of the Lower Cretaceous is underlain by the Beaverhill Lake carbonates of the Upper Devonian and are overlain by the Joli Fou shales of the Colorado group. In Twp. 056. Rge. 06 W4M. the average Mannvilleroup thickness is 165 m. Figure 2 shows the geological nomenclature used in the Lindbergh (Twp. 055 056. Rge. 04. 05. 06 W4M) and Frog Lake (Twp 055. 506. Rge. 02. 03) areas.

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