The paper compares the organization of the federal-industry relationship of a number of countries. This comparison is made against a hypothetical idealized nation which is organized to develop ocean resources in the best national interest. The paper demonstrates that of the nations examined, their ranking with respect to this idealized manager is as follows:

  1. Japan,

  2. Taiwan,

  3. Germany,

  4. France,

  5. Canada, and

  6. United States.

Federal support for ocean resource development in all nations falls into categories of support for (1) science, (2) technology, (3) systems acquisition and operation. In the idealized case, there is a measure of federal support in all three areas. This situation exists in Japan. In the most antithetical case, federal support is limited primarily to science and private industry and is prevented by law and custom from acting in concert to perform systems function. This situation exists in the United States.


The description of any nation's endeavors to harvest the resources of the ocean is, at best, impressionistic involving, as it does, a myriad of bureaus and bureaucracies, corporations, and enterprises, research and development institutions, social and legal regimes and institutions, etc. A comparative description of a number of national endeavors to harvest the resources of the ocean must be equally impressionistic, since economic, social, political, legal and scientific regimes differ widely between different nations and are not therefore strictly comparable. Despite the inability to describe national organization for development of ocean resources or to compare them, the actual endeavors--private, national, and international-will, in fact, determine who develops the ocean resources, how they are developed, whether the resources are conserved or wasted, the distribution of economic wealth derived there from, etc. Some attempt, no matter how impressionistic, ought therefore to be made to assess and compare national endeavors as a guide to technology development, as a benchmark against which to measure changes or proposed changes in national policy, as a predictor of the trend and pace of ocean development, etc.

This paper undertakes to make such a comparative survey and to derive from it some measure of the relative pace and efficiency of the collective international effort to enjoy the resources of the ocean.

In order to accomplish this comparative study, an idealization will be employed-that of a hypothetical nation which is organized so that its government can perform as a system manager to optimize the process of exploring for and exploiting ocean resources the benefit of the nation. Against thisidealization, the organization of a spectrum of other nations can be compared and an assess transment can be made of their effectiveness in carrying out the system's goal.

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