The Kapok gas field development, along with the concurrent Bombax pipeline project, will double BP's offshore Trinidad gas delivery capacity from the current 1.5 bscfd to 3 bscfd. This step change in delivery requires significant additions in both facilities and wells. The Kapok project team was tasked to deliver a field development scheme that not only would meet rate profile demands, but would do so while reducing the cumulative environmental impact of both new and existing infrastructure and introduce BP's highest level of health and safety standards to it's Trinidad operations. In a relatively short timeframe, the project team evaluated distinctly different schemes and arrived at a solution that: increases the overall safety of personnel working in the infrastructure; reduces the cumulative environmental impact of the new and existing infrastructure; addresses popular issues including mud cuttings discharge, disposition of produced water, and ESD flaring; and meets the desired financial parameters associated with the step change in BP's gas business. This paper outlines the challenge, presents the evaluation of differing development schemes, and details the novel solution that will significantly alter the way in which BP delivers world-class gas reserves offshore Trinidad.
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago's gas business has grown rapidly over the past decade, successfully supplanting a declining oil business dating back some 40 years. The pace of growth has been fueled both by the nation's competitive source of gas supply and the ability to monetize its gas through proximity to Atlantic rim gas markets. BP Trinidad and Tobago LLC's (bpTT) share of the gas supply has grown from less than 350 mmcfd in 1994 to over 1000 mmscfd today. And with additional downstream projects, including the commissioning of two new liquefied natural gas trains to be completed by mid-2003, BP's gas production is set to increase to over 1800 mmscfd by 2004. Buoyed by sustained world-class exploration success, BP is considering additional opportunities that could more than double its share of the country's expanding gas business over the next 10 to 15 years.
To date, BP's gas projects in Trinidad and Tobago have progressed on an as required basis, focused at fulfilling a specific market need. As such, field developments utilized offshore facilities and processes that were remarkably similar to each subsequent development, whilst making incremental improvements. These relatively small platforms served multiple purposes: accomodating 16-32 wells; basic production process facilities ranging from 300-825 mmcfd capacity; the termination point for multiple large diameter risers; the base for a temporary, modular platform drilling rig and drilling crew accommodations; and accommodations for permanently based offshore production and maintenance staff. Collectively over time the transportation and process infrastructure of these fields has overlapped. Fig. 1 depicts BP's offshore Trinidad gas infrastructure, as it exists today.
Fig. 1 Existing bpTT Gas Infrastructure(Available in full paper)
Notably, the major platforms range in age from 20 years old (Cassia) to a recent installation (Amherstia).