Carbon black was oxidized (OCB) and added in the concentrations from 0.05 to 0.50 wt% to various aqueous solutions containing Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid 1 wt%) in concentration of 3.0 g L−1. The nanofluids' viscosity were measured during 150 days and showed that small amount of the OCB nanoparticles improved the viscosity and the stability of aqueous and saline solutions. Therefore, the use of OCB onto polyacrylamide dispersions shows potential application in oil recovery.


Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a water-soluble polymer that shows high viscosity, low toxicity and low cost [1]. This polymer has been used as a mobility control agent as well as an agent for permeability profile correction in improved oil recovery [2]. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) (Figure 01) has also been used in oil recovery since its negative carboxyl groups in aqueous solution causes extension of its chain leading to viscosity increase of the solution [3]. However, its use is limited due to the low stability under several harsh conditions, e.g. temperature, shear stress and salinity [4].

Previously work using polyacrylamide nanofluid prepared with carbon nanotubes as a nanofillers showed significant improvement in maintaining viscosity [5]. The carbon black (CB) is also a versatile carbonaceous nanomaterial which has highly developed porous structure and low cost [6]. The CB has been widely used as an adsorbent, catalyst and catalyst support. Surface modification of CB allows the direct modulation of its physicochemical properties to improve its suitability in various applications. Oxygen-containing functional groups can provide active sites and can change the hydrophobicity of the carbon surface. These functionalizations increase the dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in water [7]. To improve the stability with time and saline solution of PAM solutions we have used oxidized carbon black (OCB) as a nano-additive.

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