Tunu is one of Mahakam fields with majority gas production. The depositional nature of fluvial with minimum tidal influence results in the signature of delta sedimentation by hundred layers of gas-bearing sand lenses as pay zone. They are constructed of unconsolidated clean and shaly sand reservoirs at the shallower burial and higher consolidation at deeper burial due to compaction and diagenesis. The unconsolidated section requires sand control as mandatory means to unlock it safely.
The combined challenge of numerous sand layers and marginal reserves makes it economically impossible to perform regular detailed physical sand grain assessment by individual conventional coring completed with Laser Particle Sieve Analysis (LPSA). An economic approach is through performing sand bailing. However, the bailed sand dry-sieve results were confusing with wide particle size distribution (PSD) curve variation from several well samples. Referring to this PSD uncertainty, installing straddled thru-tubing screen in front of the reservoir as sand control resulted in good production and plugged indication at the beginning of the initiative by utilizing a similar screen opening size. Thus, a new fit-for-purpose methodology was required.
A study to predict sand grain size on each reservoir target was initiated by analyzing three available shallow reservoir cores in Mahakam, which could cover most of Tunu's shallow sedimentation type. The result was that most of the sand grain size distribution on each sample core correlated with their calculated shale volume content (v-shale). Lower v-shale is respected to larger sand grain size. Unconsolidated Tunu Shallow reservoir doesn't contain any specific radioactive minerals. Thus, v-shale could be easily calculated from gamma-ray logs, which are always available on each reservoir target at any drilled wells. The relationship between sand grain size and v-shale was gathered on a single map.
The map was then validated by historical screen installation. Positive results were seen when screen size selection respects specific patterns on the generated sand map at the v-shale value of perforation intervals. Thru-tubing screen installation campaign was continued following the new sand map reference. It could deliver more than 80% successful installation with no plugging or sand at a new perforated reservoir when no screen integrity issue due to erosion was encountered.
This novel approach allowed better prediction of thru-tubing screen opening size requirements and perforation interval selection in Tunu unconsolidated reservoir and was successfully expanded in offshore Mahakam field at similar facies.