Capturing the reservoir heterogeneity is crucial for optimizing field development. Lang-Lebah field is a Miocene carbonate platform with approximately 5 in size and over 1 km in height with a high degree of heterogeneity in both vertical and horizontal directions. In this study, we conducted a seismic-based characterization to capture reservoir heterogeneity and then ran sequential gaussian simulation with a data from wells to build a static model for field development purpose.

The method mainly comprises of four steps. The first step is to establish a relationship between reservoir properties (such as facie and porosity) to elastic properties (such as P- and S-wave impedances) to build conditional probability. The second step is running pre-stack inversion to derive P- and S-wave impedances as inputs for the third step. The posterior probability of each facie is determined through Bayesian classification using inverted impedances and the derived conditional probability as inputs. The last step is employing sequential gaussian simulation to build a static model using derived posterior probability of each facie and porosity cube.

The static model encapsulates heterogeneity in terms of carbonate facie and reservoir properties. The observed heterogeneity is highly consistent with the understanding of geological model of this carbonate platform. The result shows lateral heterogeneity in each zone of high energy facies (such as reef margin) at the windward flank of the platform and low energy facies (such as lake) at platform interior. Thus, this result was elaborated for geological concept beyond the using well data alone. The result also shows a vertical succession from different carbonate reservoir deposit regarding to accommodation as carbonate build-out to a typical carbonate platform build-up continue to carbonate build-in. In addition, flooding event or surfaces, which is part of reservoir barrier, was also identified and included in this static model.

The details of this successful novel study lay a fundamental work process for battling the challenge of gigantic carbonate characterization for field development. Because of this sophisticated model, we can properly plan the sequence of production and producing well targeting based on the derived reservoir heterogeneity resulting in enabling several Tscf of reserves and minimizing development costs.

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