This paper provides insight on planning and equipment-selection processes to successfully ream and drill in 9 5/8-in. casing through a water-sensitive shale formation, followed by a two-stage cement job to isolate lost-circulation zones. Proper placement of cement all the way to surface would be essential for providing an additional annular barrier to prevent casing-to-casing annular gas migration.
Selection of the equipment is dictated by the operation to be performed (i.e., drilling new hole versus reaming a tight section), the type of reamer or drill shoe used, selection of specialized drilling tools and centralizers, along with stage cementing tools with integral packing elements, among many other requirements. Current drilling with casing (DwC) applications allow for plastering cuttings to the wellbore wall, creating a barrier that minimizes fluid losses. It also reduces the annular clearance between the casing and the wellbore wall, thus improving velocity and hole cleaning compared to conventional drilling practice. And, by introducing a stage cementing tool with an integrated packer, the annular barrier can be set inside the previous casing string to facilitate two-stage cementing, thus enabling full circulation, with cement to surface.
Currently, 23 wells have been completed using this approach. A few of these jobs stand out. In one case, the casing string was reamed 501-ft (153-m) for 7.75 hours at speeds between 20 and 25 rpm using an eccentric nose shoe with carbide cutting structure on the exterior. Following the first stage of cementing (with zero returns received at surface), the team inflated the packer element of the stage cementing tool and initiated the second stage of cementing. During a second bottoms-up circulation, returns at the surface indicated successful setting and a successful second-stage cementing job in a reamed hole. In another case, the string was reamed 316 ft over 3.75 hours with 20 RPM rotation, until the bottom of the conventionally drilled hole was reached. Using a specialized drilling shoe, the string was then drilled 301 ft over 14.75 hours with 20 to 50 RPM rotation to the desired depth.
Based on the broad success of this technique, the service provider built a detailed database of field jobs. This database provides a better understanding of the parameters and recommendations for this application. These insights include how to improve standoff and minimize damage to the element while rotating by using rigid centralizers, implementation of shouldered connections to allow torque transmission without compromising thread integrity, recommended RPMs and torque based on internal and external components of the tool, among others.
This well construction technique has saved hundreds of hours of rig time by enabling operators to drill with the two-stage cementer (with integral packer in the string) instead of having to continue drilling a problematic open hole with a conventional assembly and run casing afterwards. By performing successful two-stage cement jobs, the need to perform top cement jobs due to total losses is eliminated. And finally, the technique eliminates the need for conditioning the hole to allow casing placement at TD, an operation that would require an additional trip with a dedicated bottom hole assembly (BHA).