Geothermal energy is energy that is sourced from the heat of the Earth. It is classified as a renewable energy resource and is exploited and utilized for power generation purposes onshore, mostly by countries who live in close proximity to the boundaries of Earth's tectonic plates where geothermal energy is abundant, predominantly in its most active parts, in what is termed as the Pacific Ring of Fire. This geothermal energy-rich area not only covers those that are on land, but also extends offshore. However, the exploitation and utilization of geothermal energy in the offshore setting has historically been deemed uneconomic and not feasible. But with the advent of new offshore drilling and power generation technologies and the increasing cost of conventional energy sources, the idea deserves reconsideration. This paper presents a review of the literature available on the subject of offshore geothermal energy utilization and lists down challenges it has yet to hurdle in order to be realized. It considers the possible utilization of geothermal energy for existing and planned subsea petroleum development projects as well other applications where it might be of benefit, maybe not in the conventional large-scale power conversion sense it is used for on land but as a modular, scalable, sustainable and renewable energy resource offshore.

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