The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) dictates under international law how all offshore maritime frontier waters are to be "divided up" in the world today.
All Law of the Sea (LOS) applications, begin with coastlines and/or their related coastal frontages. The United Nations (UN) lists 152 countries (conventional coastal states) as being applicable to the rules of procedures for LOS applications. Additionally, and more recently, we include three coastal countries (land-locked "sea/lake" states) in the Caspian Sea, as well as seven additional coastal (land-locked "lake") states, for the Great Lakes of Africa. Therefore, basic LOS mapping principles, that begins with coastlines and/or coastal frontages will impact 162 countries in the world today. The accuracies of present-day mapped features that are components of all coastal (and land-locked "sea/lake") states’ coastlines', will be used to produce various mathematical applications for the LOS.
The offshore Arctic maritime spaces (for five relevant littoral countries), is one of the more complex regions of the world, and, from a current LOS standpoint, basic summaries on the status of LOS and how it directly relates to the oil and gas industry will be reviewed.