Description of the Paper: Our paper outlines the history of spill response requirements in the U.S. Arctic and how incidents have shaped spill legislation. A review of the equipment utilized in spill response from the 1980’s and focuses on the exploration efforts in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. It also covers a review of the changing spill response requirements and their impact on the Shell exploration effort.
The experiments and real life experience with spills in ice are reviewed and the equipment and tactics developed from this experience will be described. The limitations of each recovery option are explored and when each tactic would be effective in a spill event.
Proposed spill response platforms for effective spill response operations are identified and how spill response equipment can be deployed in the field.
Application: Spill response options are shown for working in the Arctic in the various ice conditions that may be experienced throughout the year.
Results, Observations and Conclusions: The paper covers the changes in response equipment designed to operate in the Arctic and the tactics that are effective as well as touch on future research that is needed to improve recovery options.
Significance of Subject Matter: The effectiveness of a spill mitigation plan is critical in securing the permits and social license to explore for hydrocarbons in the fragile Arctic environment.