Nowadays wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used as a field information gathering technology in remote monitoring and control areas. However, deploying WSNs in the Arctic areas is still facing some special challenges. The extremely low temperature (below -40°C degrees) and frequent snow/ice covering may affect the stable operation of regular electronic circuitry. And inaccessibility makes the Arctic WSNs be isolated from human's maintenance most of the time. In this paper, we propose a Large-Scale Satellite-based Wireless Sensor Network (LSSWSN) architecture for the Arctic areas. Based on ZigBee-Pro protocol, our proposed LSSWSN holds the capacity of 64,000 nodes in total, which are divided into 100 sub-networks with 640 nodes for each sub-network. This proposed design can make sure some critical network faults to be isolated into small sub-network domain. Moreover, FPGA-based hardware implementation of AES has been integrated to improve communication security. Special considerations have been also taken into account for the enclosure design of the sensor nodes, routers, and coordinator within LSSWSN.

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