Superstructure icing occurs when spray freezes on offshore platforms and ships. Though superstructure ice accumulates fastest on moving vessels that generate bow spray, stationary structures also ice in storms. And ice from atmospheric sources also accumulates, affecting parts of platforms and ships not affected by sea spray. Icing is often accepted as an inconvenience to offshore operators, but that tolerance can reduce safety, operational tempo, and productivity. This report shows how to evaluate the impact of superstructure and atmospheric ice to offshore platform and ship functions and components from work conducted for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), and for the US Coast Guard using questionnaires and observations. The report proposes a risk matrix approach for assessing the relative threat of ice from sea spray, frost, snow, rime and glaze to the safety and functions of platforms and ships, and demonstrates how to identify and prioritize areas requiring ice protection. It also briefly describes available ice protection techniques other than baseball bats and mallets. The goal is to provide a resource for offshore operators with superstructure icing-related safety concerns.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.