A hydrocarbon logistics for transmission and distribution involves several facilities that are part of a complex process and associated functions for every single element. In comparison with pipelines, stations and terminals are generally confined to a specific site. Facilities modeling to assess risk and reliability are limited to what occurs within a fence. It is clear stations and terminals have not been subject to the same type of scrutiny as pipelines, however, this is changing and more engineering efforts are required.
Facilities components are covered in several engineering standards, where in many cases every element is considered individually without referring to every possible combination or arrangement – in other words, the user has to assemble a process from different sources. This paper provides a documented process to assemble this jigsaw in a simple way to convince operators and field engineers to use it as a supporting tool. These facilities may have one or more main parallel and support processes and a function, therefore defining a simple way for modeling becomes an important issue. It is important to bear in mind that stations and terminals may have one or more main processes, functions, auxiliary or support processes. Therefore it is important to make as simple as possible the connection between all components and a flow chart. This avoids assumptions by the analyst who has to model what it is actually seeing to obtain results that benefit its decisions.
Models to assess facilities must be based on a consistent hierarchy to establish boundaries between all possible layers in such a way that they can be evaluated independently to include their contribution in risk and reliability. This model is supported by ISO 14224 Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries – Collection and Exchange of Reliability and Data maintenance for Equipment, which is devised for any user of a model's results: industry, business category, installation, unit, section, equipment, subunit and maintainable items.