The design of offshore arctic pipelines must evaluate technical engineeringchallenges, primarily related to system demand and system capacity, and addressproject execution risk, primarily associated with pipeline trenching andlogisitics. One of the significant hazards, particularly in deeper water, isthe presence of extreme ice features; such as icebergs and multi-year pressureridges, that may gouge the seabed. A comprehensive engineering framework existsto support the analysis and design of offshore pipelines in ice gougeenvironments. However, there exists some aeas of technical uncertainty withinthe current state-of-practice that are highlighted in this paper. This studyfocuses on specific technical issues associated with the simulation of contactmechanics, definition of interface parameters, and need for physical datasetsfor the validation of advanced numerical simulation tools. Study specificconclusions and recommendations that address these technology needs to resolveuncertainty associated with the simulation of ice gouging events areprovided.


Over the past decade, numerous studies have illustrated the simulationpotential of recent advancements in computational hardware and softwareplatforms to solve complex multi-physics problems involving large deformations, large strains and advanced constitutive models. For example, the ArbitraryLagrange Eulerian (ALE) modelling framework has been used to examine manypractical engineering problems such as ice gouging and ice/structureinteraction (e.g. Kenny et al., 2007; Konuk et al., 2005; 2009). Although theunderlying technical basis is sound and the innovative efforts are recognized, application of these advanced numerical procedures is ahead of the curve withrespect to the requisite benchmarks and validation (Pike et al., 2011a,b). Forice gouge events, there has been recent effort to address this issue (e.g. Panico et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2010; Sancio et al., 2011); however, asshown in this study and others (e.g. Pike et al., 2011c; Rossiter and Kenny,2012), there is a need for a focused and collaborative effort in order toimprove confidence and reduce uncertainty in the numerical modelling proceduresthrough model validation (e.g. Panico et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2010; Pikeet al., 2011a,b; Pike and Kenny, 2012a).

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.