Abstract

Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) resin is a well known and widely tested tubing lining system inside carbon steel tubing, that can be applied in production and water injection well as a cost effective alternative to high alloy materials.

This paper presents the characteristics of the technology applied, a summary of laboratory testing including CO2 and H2S resistance, high flow direct impact and erosion results, the implications and recommendations to be considered during the installation, case histories and the feedback from the fields where it has been applied.

The first of Eni's application of GRE lined tubing was done in 2005 in North Africa on production wells originally completed with Carbon Steel that were frequently prone to corrosion failures because of a high CO2 concentration and high water cut and subjected to costly work-over.

Further field experience was achieved in another location in North Africa, with production tubing, which suffered frequent flow-induced corrosion, CO2 corrosion and sand abrasion failures.

Another reported case is related to an installation in the Middle East, where the GRE lining has been run in two water injection wells, with cost saving in terms of Capex and Opex.

Eight water injection wells completed with 7" and 4"1/2 tubing in the Norwegian Sector of the Barents Sea is the last field case discussed in this paper. Due to high corrosiveness of the injection fluid, raw seawater with antifouling chlorination, the lining technology has been applied as a cost effective alternative to high alloy materials.

Feedback from the fields demonstrated that, when GRE resins are used within the operating limit, then this material represent's a valid option for the well life extension and offers a life cycle cost saving.

Introduction

A GRE lined pipe is the combination of two materials: a Carbon Steel tubing with a Glass Reinforced Epoxy internal liner, a composites material belonging to the group of Fibre Reinforced Plastics [1]. Carbon Steel guarantees the mechanical resistance of the system and the internal GRE liner assures the corrosion resistance. GRE has an outstanding corrosion resistance even in very aggressive environments.

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