ABSTRACT

The uses of rubber linings in different fields/industries are discussed. The physical properties d rubber both natural and synthetic rubber are listed and their importance is evaluated.. The aging of rubber is discussed in detail, including effects a temperature on aging of rubber.

By virtue of its inherent elasticity and chemical resistance, rubber linings have found many uses in the protection of mining equipment, water treatment tanks and vessels, flue gas desulfurization equipment in power plants and varied process and storage vessels in chemical industries. Rubber has found extensive use in civil engineering field 8S expansion joints and bladders in dams. Electric resistance of rubber is useful for its application as an insulating material. Rubber is chemically resistant to acids, alkalies and many salt solutions. Rubber linings are therefore used for protection of steel against these acids, alkalies or salt solutions.

The extreme elasticity of rubber has been found useful in its application as a lining material in areas subject to high abrasion. Frequently rubber linings are the linings of choice when a combination of abrasion and chemical attack are to be protected against.

Constantly, new formulations of rubber lining compounds are being developed just as new chemical processes are being made. The flexibility C'A compounding and the relative esse d putting layers of different rubber formulations together in multilayered formulations of rubber lining compounds is leading to many uses of this lining material.

INTRODUCTION

Rubber got its present day name from the fact that it could be used to rub out or erase pencil marks. The ear1iest name a rubber translated into "weeping wood". Rubber was obtained by puncturing bark a rubber tree and latex material was collected and used. As the demand of rubber grew, the British sent the seedlings of these rubber trees of develop plantations in Malayasia, Ceytone, Indonesia, and Indo-china.

Rubber in its natural state is flexible, elastic, tough, water proof, and impermeable to air. However, it has two major troubles. It gets stiff and hard in cold weather and soft and sticky in hot weather. Charles Goodyear discovered the process a vulcanization which .cured" these two major ills a rubber. The process of vulcanization is therefore also referred as curing of rubber. The words .Cure" and 'Vulcanization" are used interchangeably and refer to the process of heating the rubber with sulfur, which stabilizes the rubber and enhances its physical properties. Vulcanized rubber has a much wider range of temperature in which it stays relatively stable compared to crude raw rubber. The word vulcanization itself is derived from 'Vulcan", the god afire. About the same time, as the vulcanization was discovered, methods were developed for kneading of the tough crude rubber (mastication) so that it became soft enough for incorporation of sulfur. These two developments became the foundation of rubber industry. Early rubber products were rain coats, waterproof shoes and solid rubber tires.

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