ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION

  • Evolving steam cycle phenomena that affect oil-wetting and the nature of produced emulsions including specific gravity.

  • Flow regimes and oil/water ratios.

  • Water chemistry as effected by dissolved solids, acid gases, oxygen ingress and the presence of low molecular weight organic acids.

  • Thermodynamic considerations based on pH and electrochemical oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as diagramed in Pourbaix format.

  • Effects of temperature and pressure changes.

  • The effect of accumulated solids.

  • Contamination and temperature lowering by injecting surface water and/or trucked in fluids into the emulsion lines.

  • Effects of injecting oxygen laden vapor recovery unit (VRU) liquids into the emulsion lines.

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