Ships and offshore structures are frequently subject to various types of actions and action effects during service that may range from the routine to the extreme or accidental. The oceanic environmental phenomena to which such structures may be exposed include freak/rogue waves, impact pressure actions (arising from sloshing, slamming, and green water), collisions, grounding, dropped objects, fire, and explosions. All of these phenomena have highly nonlinear structural consequences that result in geometric and material nonlinearities. Although the identification of both the actions and their effects is equally important in terms of structural design and strength assessments, this paper focuses on the action effects associated with nonlinear structural mechanics and the subsequent analysis of limit states and risk assessment and management. Future trends and further R&D requirements are also addressed. This paper does not offer a literature survey, but rather discusses some of the important issues that relate to nonlinear structural mechanics and analysis.

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