Elementary stress analysis techniques have been used to help present a physical picture of torsion in ships and to depict the nature of the influencing factors. It is shown that cargo distribution may exert a significant influence on twist in a containership. It also follows, from that result, that there may not necessarily be a direct proportionality between seaway loads and torsional response. Variations in the details of the bow structure are shown to exert a prime influence on variations in torsional response. The importance of boxes is discussed and depicted in charts which indicate that the bow structure probably will be much more important than small transverse boxes in minimizing twist. A simple method is presented for estimating torsional frequency. Finally, test procedures are discussed for the measurement of torsional response in models and at sea.

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