Predicting the performance of a sail design is important for optimising the performance of a yacht, and Velocity Prediction Programs (VPPs) are commonly used for this purpose. The aerodynamic force data for a VPP is often calculated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, but these can be computationally expensive. A full VPP analysis for sail design is therefore usually restricted to high-budget design projects or research activities and is not practical for many industry projects.
This work presents a method to reduce the computational cost of creating lift and drag force coefficient curves for input into a VPP using both multi-fidelity kriging surrogate modelling and data from existing sail designs. This method is shown to reduce the number of CFD simulations required for a desired accuracy when compared to a single-fidelity model. A maximum reduction in the required computational effort of 57% was achieved for model-scale symmetric spinnaker sails. For the same number of simulations, the accuracy of the model predictions was improved by up to 72% for scale-symmetric spinnaker sails, and 90% for asymmetric spinnakers.