This study demonstrates the versatility of a two-point, multilayer wall function in computing model-and full-scale ship flows with wall roughness and pressure gradient effects. The wall-function model is validated for smooth flat-plate flows at Reynolds numbers up to 109, and it is applied to the Athena R/V for resistance, propulsion, and seakeeping calculations and to fully appended DTMB 5415 for a maneuvering simulation. Resistance predictions for Athena bare hull with skeg at the model scale compare well with the near-wall turbulence model results and experimental fluid dynamics (EFD) data. For full-scale simulations, frictional resistance coefficient predictions using smooth wall are in good agreement with the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) line. Rough-wall simulations show higher frictional and total resistance coefficients, where the former is found to be in good agreement with the ITTC correlation allowance. Self-propelled simulations for the fully appended Athena performed at full scale using rough-wall conditions compare well with full-scale data extrapolated from model-scale measurements using the ITTC ship-model correlation line including a correlation allowance. Full-scale computations are performed for the towed fully appended Athena free to sink and trim and the boundary layer and wake profiles are compared with full-scale EFD data. Rough-wall results are found to be in better agree-ment with the EFD data than the smooth-wall results. Seakeeping calculations are performed for the demonstration purpose at both model-and full-scale. Maneuvering calculation shows slightly more efficient rudder action, lower heading angle overshoots, and lower roll damping for full-scale than shown by the model scale.
Model-and Full-Scale URANS Simulations of Athena Resistance, Powering, Seakeeping, and 5415 Maneuvering
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Bhushan, Shanti, Xing, Tao, Carrica, Pablo, and Frederick Stern. "Model-and Full-Scale URANS Simulations of Athena Resistance, Powering, Seakeeping, and 5415 Maneuvering." J Ship Res 53 (2009): 179–198. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/jsr.2009.53.4.179
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