Three indirect methods for characterizing the drag of an arbitrarily rough surface on a flat plate are derived or rederived from the similarity laws of turbulent shear flows. These are:

  1. the well-known procedure using displacement thickness;

  2. the probably not-so-well-known procedure using total drag; and

  3. a proposed new procedure using only the freestream velocity and a local shear stress. The classical indirect procedure for pipe flow is also derived to show a commonality with the flat-plate methods.

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