Expressions are derived for the heave and pitch exciting force and moment on a ship advancing in waves. They are obtained in the form of an integral over the ship axis of the outer source strength of the reverse-flow radiation problem multiplied by the value of the incident-wave velocity potential. Their performance is tested for two slender spheroids. Comparisons are made with predictions obtained from a three-dimensional numerical solution at zero speed—the expression common to strip-theory programs which uses the ship hull as the integration surface—and the direct solution of the diffraction problem.

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