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Keywords: toxicity
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Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 67 (11): 20–22.
Paper Number: SPE-1115-0020-JPT
Published: 01 November 2015
... summarizing the “most concerning risk issues” including (1) the number and toxicity of chemicals in hydraulic fracturing and acid stimulation fluids, (2) hydraulic fracturing in reservoirs with a long history of oil and gas production, (3) spills and leaks, (4) beneficial use of produced water, and (5...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 57 (11): 61–63.
Paper Number: SPE-1105-0061-JPT
Published: 01 November 2005
... drilling and well-construction discharges take place. These control systems rely on a range of tools to predict, rank, or otherwise categorize the expected effect of discharged materials. There may be a heavy reliance on laboratory-based toxicity and biodegradation tests, or attempts to predict...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 57 (07): 61–63.
Paper Number: SPE-0705-0061-JPT
Published: 01 July 2005
... of cuttings, has led to development of SBM. SBM is designed to be less toxic and to biodegrade in marine sediments faster than OBM, while providing the technical advantages of OBM when drilling difficult wells. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines SBM as drilling mud in which a synthetic...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 56 (11): 64–84.
Paper Number: SPE-1104-0064-JPT
Published: 01 November 2004
... recently, low-toxicity 1 wt% gellant and other additives. Emulsifiers refined from crude oil and are a nonspecific mineral-oil-based fluids, highly refined min- are used in NADFs to stabilize the water-in-oil collection of hydrocarbon compounds eral oils, and synthetic fluids (esters, paraf- emulsions...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 49 (07): 724–728.
Paper Number: SPE-38251-JPT
Published: 01 July 1997
... lao drilling fluid formulation surface phenomenon drilling performance toxicity base fluid synthetic drilling fluid chemistry DISTINGUISHED AUTHOR SERIES SECOND·GENERATION SYNTHETIC DRILLING FLUIDS J.E. Friedheim, SPE, M-I Drilling Fluids LLC SUMMARY At the start of the 1990's, three...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 46 (09): 804–809.
Paper Number: SPE-27979-PA
Published: 01 September 1994
.... On July 2, 1986, regulations took effect that placed a limit on the toxicity of water-based drilling fluids being discharged into the Gulf of Mexico. Until mid-1986, operators in the Gulf of Mexico were allowed to discharge water-based drilling fluids and cuttings that did not contain diesel oil or "free...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 45 (02): 166–173.
Paper Number: SPE-22815-PA
Published: 01 February 1993
... means become redundant or uneconomical. 1 2 1993 1 2 1993 1 2 1993 1 2 1993 1993. Society of Petroleum Engineers oil content integrity upstream oil & gas operation waste management injection artificial intelligence regulation toxicity concentration reduction...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 44 (05): 542–547.
Paper Number: SPE-23375-PA
Published: 01 May 1992
...Neal E. Thurber Summary This paper discusses engineering variables that should be addressed to minimize waste-toxicity and -generation while drilling land-based wells. Proper balance of these variables provides both operational and environmental benefits. Introduction Increasing public awareness...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 43 (10): 1192–1193.
Paper Number: SPE-23572-PA
Published: 01 October 1991
...Roger Bleier Introduction Acute toxicity of drilling muds is measured in the U.S. by the mysid shrimptest. Drilling muds that fail the test cannot be discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, and such muds and their cuttings must he brought onshore for disposal. Discharge of water-based muds that pass...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 43 (01): 14–16.
Paper Number: SPE-20617-PA
Published: 01 January 1991
... or remediation goals at a given site and canbe used to convey the conditions at the site to the public and media. QRA's arescientifically defensible documents, based on the best and most currentunderstanding of the toxicity and exposure data base, that provide a logical, documented transition from site-specific...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 41 (04): 337–342.
Paper Number: SPE-17569-PA
Published: 01 April 1989
...R.L. Arscott Summary Since the passage of the Natl. Environmental Protection Act in 1970, the oil and gas industry has made tremendous progress in developing techniques, procedures, and less toxic materials for the protection of human health and the environment. The toxicity of drilling fluids...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 37 (03): 475–480.
Paper Number: SPE-11399-PA
Published: 01 March 1985
..., was developed, and a test program was conducted on field mud samples representing each of the eight basic types. Operators were allowed to discharge muds of the eight types without conducting additional bioassays. Results of the test program indicate that all eight generic muds demonstrated low toxicity...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 37 (01): 137–142.
Paper Number: SPE-12119-PA
Published: 01 January 1985
...P.A. Boyd; D.L. Whitfill; T.S. Carter; J.P. Allamon Summary The use of a new and different low-toxicity, low-pollutant oil-mud base fluid is presented. This low-polynuclear-aromatic (LPNA) oil differs from most other white mineral oils in that it is composed of 99+ % cyclic and branched paraffins...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 36 (06): 975–981.
Paper Number: SPE-11355-PA
Published: 01 June 1984
...-based fluids possess the same characteristics but also have definite advantages over diesel-oil-based drilling and spotting fluids. These characteristics and advantages are shown by laboratory evaluations, laboratory toxicity studies, and field case histories. Laboratory toxicity tests have been...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 29 (06): 723–729.
Paper Number: SPE-6284-PA
Published: 01 June 1977
... toxicity university research consortium operation hydrocarbon gulf university research consortium trace metal petroleum hydrocarbon marine environment Upstream Oil & Gas ppb concentration oil spill dilution Offshore sea water Environmental Aspects of Produced Waters From Oil and Gas...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 28 (11): 1285–1288.
Paper Number: SPE-6225-PA
Published: 01 November 1976
... the water column and sediments, have been characterized accurately. Initially, the API work concentrated on laboratory studies of both the acute and chronic toxicity of two crudes and two product oils on various marine organisms. Thereafter, in recognition of the artificiality of laboratory studies...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 23 (03): 294–300.
Paper Number: SPE-3134-PA
Published: 01 March 1971
... ft, diver bottom time is limited by considerations of safety and endurance. JPT P. 294 carbon dioxide ATA volubility Upstream Oil & Gas communication lung Health & Medicine concentration decompression contractor hemoglobin oxygen US government Physiology toxicity symptom...

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