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Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*68 (01): 38–41.

Paper Number: SPE-0116-0038-JPT

Published: 01 January 2016

... Engineer downturn university curricula

**reservoir****system**Shaffer student personnel competence spe technical director Duhon operation operator technical director construction exploration reservoir Reservoir Characterization Blasingame information presentation Cunha Drilling TECHNICAL...
Abstract

Technical Directors Outlook The oil bust is forcing change, which is often difficult and sometimes for the better. Another major round of layoffs hit exploration and production workers late last year, as companies came to the painful conclusion that a recovery is not coming any time soon. The cost pressures behind those cuts are also a force for more positive changes in the industry, such as simplified project designs, revised completion designs, and the application of unconventional innovations to conventional exploration and production. The seven technical directors on the SPE Board of Directors are concerned about the long-term impact of this wrenching period. They addressed the issue during a panel discussion on “Managing the Future Impact of Current Cost Cutting” at the 2015 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. And it was on their minds as they talked about the industry’s future for this article. One danger they cite is that money saved now by reducing the number of experienced petroleum engineers could have financial consequences later in the form of more expensive wells that are less productive, or shortages of skilled professionals. “It is very hard for any professional in the industry to lose his or her job,” said J.C. Cunha, SPE’s technical director for Management and Information, adding, “These people are capable of doing a lot of other things. They will not sit and wait 2 to 3 years when the industry begins to look for them.” The industry is cutting expenses, but lasting productivity will depend on how it measures costs. “We have to make sure that the drive to cut costs doesn’t impact the cost-effectiveness of wells,” said David Curry, the technical director representing Drilling and Completions. Rather than focusing on the number of days it takes to drill, the industry should design and build wells to maximize profitable output.

Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*40 (10): 1280–1282.

Paper Number: SPE-18594-PA

Published: 01 October 1988

... distinguishbecause of similarities between one plot or are hard to distinguish because ofsimilarities between one

**reservoir****system**and another are easier to recognizeon the pressure-derivative plot. Once the patterns have been diagnosed on thepressure-derivative plot. Once the patterns have been diagnosed on the log...
Abstract

Technology Today Series articles provide useful summary informationon both classic and emerging concepts in petroleum engineering. Purpose: To provide the general reader with a basic understanding of a significantconcept, technique, or development within a specific area of technology. Summary. The combined plot of log pressure change and log derivative ofpressure change with respect to superposition time as a function of log elapsedtime was first introduced by Bourdet et al. as an aid to type-curve matching. Features that are hardly visible on the Homer plot or are hard to distinguishbecause of similarities between one plot or are hard to distinguish because ofsimilarities between one reservoir system and another are easier to recognizeon the pressure-derivative plot. Once the patterns have been diagnosed on thepressure-derivative plot. Once the patterns have been diagnosed on the log-logplot. specialized plots can be used to compute reservoir parameters or the datacan be matched to a type curve. The Homer plot has been the most widely accepted means for analyzingpressure-buildup data since its introduction in 1951. The slope of the lineobtained by plotting pressure vs. log Horner time is used to compute thereservoir permeability. (Homer time is the log of production time plus shut-intime divided by shut-in time.) The extension of this line to the time 1 hourafter the start of the buildup provides a means for calculating the skinfactor. The extension of this line to when the Homer time equals 1 is theextrapolated pressure used to determine the average reservoir pressure.pressure. Another widely used aid to pressure-transient analysis is the plot oflog pressure. change vs. log elapsed (shut-in) time. This plot serves twopurposes. First, the data can be matched to type curves, which are plots ofanalytically generated reservoir response patterns for specified reservoirmodels. Second, the type curves can illustrate the expected trends inpressure-transient data for a large variety of well and reservoir systems, The visual impression afforded by the log-log presentation has been greatlyenhanced by the introduction of the pressure derivative. In practice, thederivative of the pressure change is taken with respect to the superpositiontime function, which corrects for variations in the surface flow rate thatoccurred before the flow period being analyzed. As such, it represents theslope of the generalized Homer plot for buildup data. When the data produce astraight line on a semilog plot, the pressure-derivative produce a straightline on a semilog plot, the pressure-derivative will, therefore, be constant. That is, the log-log pressure-derivative plot will be flat for that portion ofthe data that can be correctly plot will be flat for that portion of the datathat can be correctly analyzed as a straight line on the Homer plot. Many analysts rely on the plot of log-log pressure vs. pressure derivativeto diagnose which reservoir model can pressure derivative to diagnose whichreservoir model can represent a given pressure-transient data set. Patternsvisible in the log-log diagnostic and Homer plots for five frequentlyencountered reservoir systems are shown in Fig. 1. The simulated curves in Fig.1 were generated from analytical models. For each case, the log-log plotillustrates the features typically seen in real data. The curves on the leftrepresent buildup responses; the derivatives were computed with respect to theHomer time function. The curves on the right show what the same examples looklike on a plot of pressure vs. log Homer time. For each log-log plot, the upper curve is the pressure change, delta p, vs.the shut-in time, delta t, and the lower curve is the pressure changederivative, (delta p)'delta t. Patterns in the pressure derivative that arecharacteristic of a particular pressure derivative that are characteristic of aparticular reservoir model are shown in a different type of line that isreproduced on the Homer plot. The portions of the derivative curves that appearflat determined where to draw the lines on the Homer plots, which weredetermined from a least-squares fit using the points between the arrows on theplot. When the Homer plot line has been diagnosed from the derivative response, the values computed for permeability, skin, and extrapolated pressure will bebased on the radial flow response required for the Homer analyst The Homer plots were drawn with Homer time increasing on the horizontal plotaxis. This means that the earliest data points appear to the right of the plotand the last data point points appear to the right of the plot and the lastdata point appears farthest to the left. For this reason, the flow regimesrepresented by different line types appear in reverse order on the Homerplots. Using common response patterns like those shown in Fig. 1 as a reference, even the novice can begin to spot trends in actual data that characterizecertain well/reservoir systems. Once the system has been diagnosed, variousportions of the data can be replotted in specialized plots that produce a linefor points within a specific range of values identified on the log-logpressure/pressure-derivative diagnostic plot. The following examples should help the reader to discern what to look for inthe log-log diagnostic plots shown in Fig. 1 Example A illustrates the most common response-that of a homogeneousreservoir with wellbore storage and skin. Wellbore-storage derivativetransients are recognized as a "hump" in early time. The flat derivativeportion in late time is easily analyzed as the Homer semilog straight line. Example B shows behavior of an infinite conductivity, which ischaracteristic of a well that penetrates a natural fracture. The half slopes inboth the pressure change and its derivative result in two parallel lines duringthe flow regime, representing linear flow to the fracture. Example C shows the homogeneous reservoir with a single vertical planarbarrier to flow or a fault. The level of the second-derivative plateau is twicethe value of the level of the first-derivative plateau, and the Horner plotshows the familiar slope-doubling effect. Example D illustrates the effect of a closed drainage volume. Unlike thedrawdown pressure transient, which has a unit-slope line in late time that isindicative of pseudosteady-state flow, the buildup pressure derivative dropspseudosteady-state flow, the buildup pressure derivative drops to zero. Thepermeability and skin cannot be determined from the Homer plot because noportion of the data exhibits a flat derivative for plot because no portion ofthe data exhibits a flat derivative for this example. When transient dataresemble Example D, the only way to determine the reservoir parameters is witha typecurve match. Example E exhibits a valley in the pressure derivative that is indicative ofreservoir heterogeneity. In this case, the feature P. 1280

Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*27 (01): 89–96.

Paper Number: SPE-4560-PA

Published: 01 January 1975

... detect anomalies in a

**reservoir****system**. These anomalies may be present in the form of faults or change in rock or fluid properties. Horner presented a technique based on the method of images presented a technique based on the method of images to analyze the transient data in the presence of a single...
Abstract

Prasad, Raj K., SPE-AIME, H. J. Gruy and Prasad, Raj K., SPE-AIME, H. J. Gruy and Associates, Inc. The paper presents an analytical solution for the transient pressure behavior of a well located near two intersecting boundaries in an otherwise infinite system. A least-squares method is used to solve for the pertinent reservoir parameters, providing a rational method for selecting the parameters in any equation that result in a "best fit" of the observed data. Introduction Pressure-transient testing has been extensively Pressure-transient testing has been extensively applied to detect anomalies in a reservoir system. These anomalies may be present in the form of faults or change in rock or fluid properties. Horner presented a technique based on the method of images presented a technique based on the method of images to analyze the transient data in the presence of a single fault. van Poollen utilized the method of images to generate pressure drawdown curves for a well located near two intersecting faults in an otherwise infinite system. The image method can be used when angles of intersection are /n, where n is a positive integer for cases where the wells are not located on the bisector of the angle. If the well is located on the bisector, the method is applicable for angles equal to 2 /n in which n is again a positive integer greater than unity. The image technique fails when one or more of the image wells fall in the real plane. This situation prevails when the angle of intersection is n /m, where m and n are both positive integers, prime to each other. For example, when the angle between two intersecting boundaries is 2 /3 and a well is located asymmetrically at P, as in Fig. 1, the image P3 falls in the real plane, and the image technique fails. This is well described by Carslaw and Jaeger. In this paper an analytical solution for the transient pressure behavior for a well located near two intersecting boundaries in an otherwise infinite system is presented. This solution is valid for all angles of intersection and well locations. A least-squares method is used to solve for the pertinent reservoir parameters such as distance from the well to the parameters such as distance from the well to the boundaries, angle between the two boundaries, flow capacity, and the initial reservoir pressure best describing the observed pressure transient data. The least-squares technique provides a rational method for selecting the parameters in any equation that result in a "best fit" of the observed data. Theory Mathematical Treatment The physical model considered in this analysis consists of a well located near two intersecting faults in an otherwise infinite system. The fluid flowing into the wellbore is slightly compressible and of constant compressibility and viscosity; and the reservoir system is homogeneous, isotropic and of constant thickness. A well is approximated by a line source. We consider a source at (r', 0') in a radial coordinate system with the origin at the intersection of the two boundaries, as in Fig. 2. Carslaw and Jaeger present the Green's function for the temperature present the Green's function for the temperature distribution due to a unit instantaneous point source at (r', 0') with no flow of heat across the two boundaries in such a wedge system. Their solution is integrated along the coordinate axis, z, and in time to obtain a continuous line source. The integrated solution in terms of fluid flow is presented below. (1) r 2 x - +1 2 e r' 2 pD (r, 0, tD) = g(x)dx, pD (r, 0, tD) = g(x)dx, 0o rr' 2- 2tD d1 JPT P. 89

Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*26 (12): 1335–1343.

Paper Number: SPE-4905-PA

Published: 01 December 1974

...R. Ehrlich; H.H. Hasiba; P. Raimondi This procedure, in which the wettability change is assumed to be the important enhanced recovery mechanism, is recommended for determining the applicability alkaline waterflooding in specific light-oil

**reservoir****systems**. Introduction The wettability of petroleum...
Abstract

This procedure, in which the wettability change is assumed to be the important enhanced recovery mechanism, is recommended for determining the applicability alkaline waterflooding in specific light-oil reservoir systems. Introduction The wettability of petroleum reservoir rock, its estimation in laboratory tests, and its effect on the displacement of oil by water have been the subject of a considerable and growing body of literature. Craig presented an excellent review of developments in this presented an excellent review of developments in this field so another discussion will not be given here. Recent investigators generally agree that preferred wettability is not a discrete-valued function, oil-wet or water-wet, but can span a continuum between these extremes. It has been demonstrated with artificial wettability systems using low-viscosity oils that waterflooding to a given water-oil ratio (WOR) becomes increasingly more efficient as a sand becomes more water-wet. It is not altogether certain, however, that waterflooding under strongly water-wet conditions is always most efficient in real reservoir systems. An example of this is given by Salathiel, who found lower residual oil saturations in mixed wettability systems than would occur under strongly water-wet conditions. This effect was attributed to gravity drainage across bedding planes. Most recently, Treiber el al. noted that a large number of reservoirs are more oil-wet than water-wet.It has generally been found, however, that causing a reservoir to become more water-wet by chemical means during the course of a waterflood results in an increase in oil recovery over that of an unaltered displacement by water alone. This has been demonstrated by Wagner and Leach, and by Leach et al. using a refined oil containing an amine to simulate an oil-wet system and an aqueous acid solution to reverse wettability. Mungan and Emery et al. obtained the same result using a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to alter the wettability of a crude oil-brine-sand system. Alkaline waterflooding has been found under certain circumstances to increase oil production by low interfacial tension displacement and by rigid film breaking as well as by favorable wettability alteration.Two types of screening procedures for recovery estimation have been reported, both of which attempt to duplicate reservoir wettability by contacting oil, water, and mineral for long periods of time. A contact-angle measurement technique was described for wettability and wettability alteration estimation and for wettability estimation alone. The measurement is made after water displaces oil from a plane mineral surface in contact with the oil for various times. To obtain no further changes, the aging times required varied from 200 to 2,400 hours for different reservoir systems. The amount of additional oil obtainable by an alkaline waterflood is inferred from the difference between the normal water-oil-solid and alkaline water-oil-solid contact angles. This type of test can only estimate wettability-change increased production. production. JPT P. 1335

Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*17 (01): 19–25.

Paper Number: SPE-920-PA

Published: 01 January 1965

... each reservoir's performance, prevent drilling of unnecessary wells, initiate operating controls at the proper time, and consider all important economic factors, including income taxes. Early and accurate identification and definition of the

**reservoir****system**is essential to effective engineering...
Abstract

Reservoir engineering involves more than applied reservoir mechanics. The objective of engineering is optimization. To obtain optimum profit from a field the engineer or the engineering team must identify and define all individual reservoirs and their physical properties, deduce each reservoir's performance, prevent drilling of unnecessary wells, initiate operating controls at the proper time, and consider all important economic factors, including income taxes. Early and accurate identification and definition of the reservoir system is essential to effective engineering. Conventional geologic techniques seldom provide sufficient data to identify and define each individual reservoir; the engineer must supplement the geologic study with engineering data and tests to provide the necessary information. Reservoir engineering is difficult. The most successful practitioner is usually the engineer who, through extensive efforts to understand the reservoir, manages to acquire a few more facts and thus needs fewer assumptions. Introduction Reservoir engineering has advanced rapidly during the last decade. The industry is drilling wells on wider spacing, unitizing earlier, and recovering a greater percentage of the oil in place. Techniques are better, tools are better, and background knowledge of reservoir conditions has been greatly improved. In spite of these general advances, many reservoirs are being developed in an inefficient manner, vital engineering considerations often are neglected or ignored, and individual engineering efforts often are inferior to those of a decade ago. Reservoir engineers often disagree in their interpretation of a reservoir's performance. It is not uncommon for two engineers to take exactly opposite positions before a state commission. Such disagreements understandably confuse and bewilder management, lawyers, state commission members and laymen. Can they be blamed if they question the technical competence of a professional group whose members cannot agree among themselves?There is considerable difference between the reservoir engineering practiced by different companies. The differences between good engineering and ineffective engineering generally involve only minor variations in fundamental knowledge but involve major differences in emphasis of what is important. Some companies or groups emphasize calculation procedures and reservoir mechanics, but pay little attention to reservoir geology. Others emphasize geology and make extensive efforts to identify individual reservoirs and deduce their performance during the development period or during the early operating period. They use reservoir engineering equations and calculation procedures primarily as tools to provide additional insight of a reservoir's performance. Those utilizing the latter approach generally are the most successful. The differences in practice observed indicate that many individuals, including managers, field personnel, educators, scientists and reservoir engineers do not understand the full scope of reservoir engineering or bow the reservoir engineer can be used most effectively. A better understanding of the basic purpose of reservoir engineering and how it can be utilized most effectively should result in improved engineering. Reservoir Engineering - A Group Effort The Purpose of EngineeringThe goal of engineering is optimization. The purpose of reservoir engineering is to provide the facts, information and knowledge necessary to control operations to obtain the maximum possible recovery from a reservoir at the least possible cost. Since a maximum recovery generally is not obtained by a minimum expenditure, the engineer must seek some optimum combination of recovery, cost, and other pertinent factors. How one defines "optimum" will depend upon the policies of the various operators and is immaterial to the views presented in this paper. From an operator's point of view any procedure or course of action that results in an optimum profit to the company is effective engineering, and any that doesn't is not. There are two reasons why a company may not receive effective engineering. Its engineers may be poorly trained and fail to perform property. However, a company can employ competent engineers and receive good engineering work from them, but as a company, still do an ineffective job of engineering. For instance, an engineer might do an excellent job of water flooding a reservoir. However, if even greater profit could have been received by water flooding five years earlier, then obviously the reservoir was not effectively engineered by the operator. JPT P. 19ˆ

Journal Articles

Journal:
Journal of Petroleum Technology

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Journal of Petroleum Technology*14 (11): 1275–1282.

Paper Number: SPE-414-PA

Published: 01 November 1962

... Abqaiq pool is presented in detail. Introduction The resistor-capacitor network and associated control equipment described in this paper comprise an electrical analog of a

**reservoir****system**. Similar equipment has been used to study the transient response of reservoirs for many years. The unique feature of...
Abstract

This paper describes an electrical model and its application to the analysis of four reservoirs in Saudi Arabia. The model has 2,501 mesh points and represents 35,000 sq miles of the Arab-D member. Details of modeling such as mesh size, control problems and standards of performance in matching reservoir history are discussed. The particular performance match achieved for the Arad-D member is presented. Details such as permeability barriers, aquifer depletion and interference between oil fields are given. The performance match realized in the Abqaiq pool is presented in detail. Introduction The resistor-capacitor network and associated control equipment described in this paper comprise an electrical analog of a reservoir system. Similar equipment has been used to study the transient response of reservoirs for many years. The unique feature of the model and application to be described is the extremely large size of the model and reservoir system, and the detail observed in simulating the reservoir with the model. The Arabian American Oil Co. first became interested in analog computers for simulation of oil reservoirs in 1949. Since that time, several models have been developed, each more elaborate and refined so that the reservoir system might be more closely simulated. The current model is the latest in a series designed, built and operated by the Field Research Laboratory of Socony Mobil Oil Co. in collaboration with Aramco. It has been and continues to be used to study the regional performance of the Arab-D member limestone reservoir. The Arab-D member is one of the Middle East's most prolific producing horizons. THE MODEL The theory of simulating a reservoir system with an electrical system has been presented in the literature. Therefore, this paper will not discuss the theoretical aspect of the problem except to point out the correspondence between the fluid system and electrical system, as shown in Table 1.In general, the complete model is made up of input devices, output devices, central control and a resistance- capacitance (RC) network. At times, the RC network alone is referred to as the "model". However, it should be evident from the text which meaning is attached to the word "model". A discussion of the equipment follows. THE RESISTANCE-CAPACITANCE NETWORK The RC network consists of 2,501 capacitance decades interconnected through 4,900 resistance decades. The components are arranged to form a rectangular network of 2,501 mesh points in a 41- X 61-mesh array. Imposing the mesh grid system on the continuous reservoir system divides the reservoir into discrete areal segments. These discrete segments may be of various sizes. More precisely, the mesh size need not be uniform throughout the model. The RC network is fabricated in two sections which are connected at the top, An inside view of the "tunnel" formed by the two sections is shown in Fig. 1. The height and width of the tunnel are shown in the figure. Numerals appear along the bottom and along the back opening of the tunnel. These numbers denote the x and y coordinate positions of mesh points. Fig. 2 presents a rear view of one-half the model. The length dimensions of the model, as well as a rear view of the capacitor decades, are shown in this figure. The control dials used in adjusting the resistance and capacitance values on the model can be seen in the enlarged portion of the model shown in Fig. 3.The electrical capacity at any mesh point can range from 0 to 1.0 microfarads set to the nearest tenth of a microfarad. The electric resistance connecting any two mesh points can range from 0 to 9,990,000 ohms set to the nearest 1,000 ohms. External capacitors may be added to any or all mesh points if the need arises. The values of electrical resistance and capacitance are adjusted manually by manipulating the two types of decade units. INPUT EQUIPMENT A considerable quantity of equipment is used to control the input to the RC network. TABLE 1 - CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN FLUID AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Fluid System Electrical System Item Units Item UnitsReservoir Pressure psi Voltage Volts Reservoir Production Reservoir B/D Current MicroamperesRate orInjectionRate Fluid Capacitance Reservoir bbl/psi Electrical MicrofaradsCapacitance Transmissibility, darcy-ft Electrical Mhos/cp Conductivity Real Time Months Model Time Seconds JPT P. 1275^