The Pembina field is the largest in Canada and one of the largest in the North American continent. Much of the published data concerning this reservoir is compared and summarized such that the geological, rock, and crude characteristics are indicated. The reservoir was initially undersaturated.
The production history is reviewed. The natural recovery mechanism is indicated to be solution gas drive. Engineering studies indicate that the ultimate recovery for various areas will be more than doubled if pressure is maintained by water flooding. With pressure maintenance the field will be in the billion barrel. reserve class. Pressure maintenance operations have commenced in various areas, using the existing wells in a 160-acre, five-spot pattern. A response to water injection has been reported in one area. By the end of 1957 about 50,000 acres will be under flood with water obtained from the North Saskatchewan River.
In mid–1953 the successful completion of the wildcat, Pembina No. 1, recorded the discovery of the Pembina field. Today, four years later, one-fifth of Canada's daily crude oil production, and one-eighth of Canada's daily crude oil requirements are produced by the Pembina field.
The Pembina field is located in the Province of Alberta in Western Canada, 70 miles west-southwest from the city of Edmonton as indicated in Fig. 1. Its area, as defined by Alberta's Oil and Gas Conservation Board, is in the order of 400,000 acres. There are currently more than 1,750 producing wells representing 175,000 developed acres. The current production rate is over 110,000 BOPD. There are 43 operators in the field ranging from Mobil Oil of Canada, Ltd. which recently completed its 500th well, to Canadian Delhi, Ltd. with one well.
In area and production, this field is the largest in Canada. It is also one of the largest in the North American continent.
The reservoir is a stratigraphic trap resulting from the up-dip "shale-out" of the Cardium sand. The strike is slightly north of northwest and regional dip is to the southwest at a rate varying from 30 ft/mile in the northeast extremity of the field to 60 ft/mile in the southwest portion of the field. The Cardium sand is encountered at depths varying from 4,600 to 5,800 ft across the field. A contour map on top of the porosity is presented in Fig. 2.