This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 202683, “Marrying the Static and Dynamic Worlds: Enhancing Saturation and Permeability Interpretation Using a Combination of Multifrequency Dielectric, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Wireline Formation Testers,” by Hassan Mostafa, Ghassan Al-Jefri, SPE, and Tania Felix Menchaca, SPE, ADNOC, et al., prepared for the 2020 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, held virtually 9–12 November. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
Accurate water saturation evaluation and permeability profiling are crucial factors in determining volumetrics and productivity of multiple, stacked carbonate reservoirs offshore Abu Dhabi and derisking reservoir management. The case study presented in the complete paper illustrates how the integration of static measurements, such as dielectric dispersion and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic measurements improves understanding of reservoir properties and supports more-accurate reservoir evaluation. Sampling and downhole fluid analysis (DFA) performed by wireline formation tester (WFT) identifies the fluid and rock properties in various flow units.
Optimal field development requires accurate estimations of water saturation and permeability. In this greenfield, the hydrocarbon is generally oil (medium to light) with very low asphaltene content. Overall, the reservoir quality is controlled by a combination of depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy, and diagenesis. Some reservoirs have good porosity, but reconciliation of log-based water saturation results with well-test results has been an issue.
The objective in this case study was to drill a pilot hole for data gathering in a poorly characterized field location. Phase I included drilling a hole with a 55° deviation to cover all reservoirs for data gathering only, with the openhole reservoir section then being plugged and abandoned. Phase II of the plan was to sidetrack and complete the well as dual water-injector boreholes.
In the reservoir section of the pilot borehole, a variety of logs was acquired for evaluation, including both logging-while-drilling and wireline measurements. While drilling, triple- combination data were acquired, consisting of gamma ray, resistivity, and nuclear logs (density neutron) along with resistivity images.
The wireline-logging program was carried out in two stages to avoid differential sticking. In the first stage, the WFT was used to acquire 10 pressure points, seven points in the first reservoir and three points in the second. Two DFA stations were also recorded in Zone 1 to confirm whether the oil/water contact was deeper than expected. Logging was conducted using a high-tension wireline cable, which facilitates quicker accessibility to the openhole sections. In the second stage, multiple wireline runs were performed for the formation evaluation of the complete section, followed by the WFT pressure and fluid-sampling run on the drillpipe conveyance. Another critical challenge was to obtain accurate water saturations in the heterogeneous, minor, thin reservoirs, which are bounded by dense layers above and below and cause shoulder-bed effects. The third challenge in this well was to obtain an accurate, continuous, and representative permeability profile for the multiple reservoirs. WFT mini-drillstem test (DST) stations along with NMR logs were used to address this important requirement.