Blasting is commonly used energy to fragment the rock mass in mining, quarry and civil engineering projects. The aim of blasting in mining and quarry projects is to obtain the maximum yield with desired fragmentation in a safer manner with minimum side effects such as ground vibration, fly rock and noise. The parameters influencing blast results can be categorized to blast design parameters, explosive charge characteristics, properties of rock mass and intact rock. There are many rock fragmentation models were developed by previous researchers and each model incorporate with different blast design and rock mass parameters. The complexities and uncertainties involves are strong arguments for developing a more robust model by incorporating computerized numerical models based on first principles. However, in recent years with the aid of computer technology, some researchers have tried to develop the models based on the numerical method for the prediction of particle size of fragmentation. This review paper presents a framework for selecting the appropriate prediction blasting models on rock fragmentation in quarry blasting parameters which have significant influence on rock fragmentation.

1. Introduction

In mining and quarrying operation, the aim of blasting is to extract the largest possible quantity of rock at minimum cost in a safer manner with minimum side effects happens. Blasting operation is carried out to provide quality and quantity requirements of production. Assessment of each blast is necessary to keep the aim of the blast is achieved. The blast results can be desired fragmentation and unwanted results such as ground vibration, fly rock and noise. Back-break and toe formation also consider as undesirable results.

A fly rock incident was reported on July 2013, where a factory worker was killed while 10 others were injured after being hit by rock debris from blasting at nearby quarry located in Johor, the incident also damaged 18 cars and 14 factories along the road, Mohamad et al. (2013).

Rock fragmentation has been the concern of many research works because it is considered as the most important aspect of production blasting, since it effects on the costs of drilling, blasting and the efficiency of all the subsystems such as loading, hauling and crushing in mining operations (Faramarzi et al., 2013).

In addition, Adhikari & Gupta (1989) mentioned that rock mass properties are important parameters in a blast design and understanding the influence of geological discontinuities and physicomechanical properties of rock is fundamental to obtain optimum fragmentation. Finally, this paper is limited to previous methods of prediction blasting models on blast results in quarry and mine. The blast results focus on rock fragmentation, flyrock, backbreak and ground vibration. The methods included empirical method, mechanistic method and numerical method.

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