The 21st century is a century of underground space development and utilization. The stability of the underground rock engineering openings has always been a critical issue in rock mechanics. In recent decades, many researchers worldwide have carried out a large number of important and insightful physical simulation experiments on the stability of underground openings and achieved fruitful results. They have reached a certain consensus in some aspects of the failure behavior. However, due to the different research emphases and simplified assumptions for the problems studied, the research results obtained are scattered. In view of this, the research progress and representative achievements of physical simulation tests of surrounding rocks failure of underground openings are systematically analyzed and summarized by combing existing literature. Specifically, the deformation and instability behavior and mechanism of the underground opening are emphatically discussed from three aspects of mechanical characteristics, failure mode, and fracture evolution process. Meanwhile, some constructive views are put forward on the specific experimental conclusions. In addition, some deficiencies in the current research of physical simulation experiments in the underground opening stability are pointed out, and the development tendencies of future research are prospected from many aspects. The above work has important practical significance for an in-depth study of the failure mechanism of underground openings and for guiding the design and construction of underground rock engineering.
The 21st century is a century of underground space development and utilization. The development and utilization of underground space is an inevitable choice for human social development, economic construction and national security strategy. The stability of the underground rock engineering openings has always been a critical issue in rock mechanics. Many disasters, such as inward extrusion deformation, spalling, collapse, and rockburst, occur frequently in underground openings, seriously threatening the safe construction and service of the underground engineering.
Physical simulation test plays an irreplaceable role in studying the stability of surrounding rock of underground opening, and its main idea is to regard the hole in a rock/rock-like sample containing prefabricated hole as underground cavity itself, and to study the deformation and failure mechanical behavior of the surrounding rock from the perspective of excavation damage. For a long time, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of work on the physical simulation test research of surrounding rock stability in the underground cavity and reached a certain consensus in some aspects. However, due to different research emphases, the results obtained are scattered and lack of representativeness. This paper systematically summarizes and analyzes the representative research results in terms of mechanical behavior, failure mode and fracture evolution process of opening surrounding rock. In addition, the shortcomings of the current research in this field are pointed out and the development tendencies of future research are prospected in many aspects.