Characterization and numerical modeling of anisotropic rock is a longstanding difficulty in rock mechanics. This paper provides overview anisotropic rock mechanics and introduces a series of experimental and numerical anisotropic rock mechanics studies. Experimental investigations are made on elastic, strength, thermal conductivity, seismic and permeability anisotropy of rock based on samples from directional coring system. Degrees of anisotropy in Asan Gneiss, Boryeong Shale and Yeoncheon Schist considered in this study are significant and have the possibility of producing errors in engineering geology applications when anisotropy is not considered. The applicability of transversely isotropic model to the chosen rocks was quantitatively investigated by comparing the apparent elastic moduli with the theoretical apparent elastic moduli predicted by tensorial transformation of compliance matrix.

For numerical stud, the smooth joint was employed in a discrete element method (DEM) code to represent a single set of weak cohesive planes in order to model the transversely isotropic rock. Systematic verification was conducted against the analytical solutions in terms of anisotropic elastic and strength behaviors. The developed model was compared with laboratory observations of three rock types leading to good agreements. Bonded-particle DEM modeling successfully captured the failure patterns observed in anisotropic in which weak planes play a significant role. The developed numerical model was upscaled to large-scale foundations problems subjected to surface line load. The study achieved reasonable agreements both for isotropic and anisotropic solutions. The results demonstrate that bonded-particle DEM with embedded smooth joints can model the equivalent anisotropic medium and it has potential to be applied to problems of larger engineering problems in which anisotropy is important.

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