This study was conducted in order to determine the suitable surface processing techniques which will increase the safety of pedestrians, reducing the risk of slipping on wet floor coverings on which they walk barefoot. In the scope of the study, slip angle of surface-processed limestones in three different dimensions is determined by using DIIN 51097 Standard "The determination of the characteristics that reduce slipping on wet, barefoot surfaces". Slip angles were calculated with the help of an inclined plane method and by using three different surface processing techniques (polishing, honing and tumbling technique) for 6 different types of limestones. It was found that the parameters which affected slip angle values of the limestones were surface roughness, plate sizes, grain size of the abrasives used for surface processing, physical and mechanical properties. In floor coverings of the polished, honed and tumbled limestones used in this experiment, the slip angle and surface roughness values of the preferred plate sizes were statistically analyzed. According to this, among all sizes and surface processes, there is a statistically significant difference in slip angle and surface roughness at a significance level of 0.05.


In today's architecture, various forms of limestone are widely used as floor covering materials. The most important parameter that should be considered in the use of limestones for floor covering is slip resistance. Recently, slip resistance has become a serious issue, particularly in floor covering designs (Gronqvist 1995; Rowland et al. 1996; Chang 1999). Slip resistance stems from the interaction between the sole of the bare foot and the surface of the covering material. Therefore, the slip safety of the limestones used in floor coverings in wet and dry environments should be determined so that people who are barefoot can move safety without undue risk of slipping. In order to determine the slip safety of different types of limestones, the slip angles of the processed limestones plaques must be tested in a laboratory environment. Various methods are used in the determination of slip angle. In this study, a barefoot ramp test was used to determine the barefoot slip safety of these limestones (DIN EN 51097 1992).

Studies aiming to reduce accidents due to slipperiness have increased as a result of increasing numbers of pedestrian slipping accidents (Adams 1997). Since 1988, many studies have emphasized the importance of surface roughness on slip one of several important factors that determine the most appropriate materials and surface finish for use in various environments and activities (Gronqvist 1995 et al. 1996; Chang 1999; Kim et al. 1999). A greater degree of the floor-covering, thus reducing the slipperiness (Chang et al. 2001a; Chang et al. 2004a; Manning et al. 2001).

In order to give an aesthetically pleasing appearance to limestones, to make the surface safer for barefoot pedestrians, and thus to reduce accidents stemming from slipperiness, a range of surface processing techniques affect the usability functions and some other technical characteristics of the limestones (resistance, environmental conditions or antislip) (Sariisik et al. 2003).

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