Summary

Important research has been developed in recent decades with the objective of the elastic characterization of shale formations, for their usefulness to optimize designs of hydraulic fracturing, seismic exploration, and estimates of horizontal stress and decreased wellbore stability problems. However, the investigation of shale is hampered by its mechanical and chemical instability, hindering the recovery of cores (cm scale) used in conventional mechanical testing. Thus, the development and implementation of experimental correlations to obtain the elastic modulus or Young's modulus by indentation technique, exhibits a great potential for the elastic characterization of these formations. Currently there is an important advance in the technique of indentation allowing the use of small samples as drill cuttings obtained during drilling and forces significantly lower than required in laboratory tests such as the uniaxial test. The correlations obtained between dynamic Young's modulus and the results of the indentation test are presented in this article. For this end, cylindrical samples of shale were considered that had both ultrasonic measurements (centimeter scale deformations) for obtaining dynamic Young's modulus and force-displacements curves obtained with the indentation technique, which allow detection of displacements as small as 0.001 mm.

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